What is the sectoral composition of employment in India?

If you were to consider a simple dual sector classification of industry groups in India, so that workers can either be working in either (a) agriculture and allied activities, or the (b) non-agriculture sector then you can observe a clear contrast in the composition of labour force. While some people may not be surprised to find that the agriculture sector is predominantly concentrated in rural India, it is interesting to note the the agricultural sector employs women labourers more intensively. On the other hand, the non-agricultural sector is mostly urban and comprises of relatively more males.

The following table (taken from the NSS report on informal sector) details the distribution of workers:

Click here to view spreadsheet in separate tab. (To download the data click on the link and go to “File”> “Download as”)

If you are wondering what goes into making of the agricultural sector, then the short and less boring answer is that it comprises of activities such as growing crops, farming of animals, forestry, fishing and service activities related to these. Non-agriculture sector is everything that is not considered in the above definition. The technical answer is that NIC groups 011 [growing of crops; market gardening; horticulture] and 013 [growing of crops combined with farming of animals (mixed farming)] form the agricultural sector (also known as AGGC); NIC groups 012 [farming of animals], 014 [agricultural and animal husbandry service activities, except veterinary activities], 015 [hunting, trapping and game propagation including related service activities], division 02 [forestry, logging and related service activities] and division 05 [fishing] form what is called the AGEGC sector ([ag]ricultural sector [e]xcluding only [g]rowing of [c]rops, market gardening, horticulture and growing of crops combined with farming of animals); and NIC division 10-99 form the non-agriculture sector. Note: I have clubbed AGGC and AGEGC when making the dual sector comparison. Also, note that the NIC classification referred above is the old one [link to NIC 2004]. I do so to maintain consistency with the NSS report [Link to report 539]. If you want to use a NIC classification please refer to the latest one here [Link to NIC 2008].

National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector Reports

Today, I wanted to refer to one of the reports of the National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector (NCEUS) and guess what – their website is not available anymore. I understand that the commission was disolved couple of years ago, but why did they have to take down the website? Sigh.

NCEUS came up with some really good work on the informal economy. I am uploading a few (report 3, 10 and working paper 2) that I happen to have. If you have any of the other reports or working papers, please upload them to google docs and send the link to: admin <at> theopendata <dot> com (Thanks!).

1. Social Security for Unorganised Workers, May 2006
2. Comprehensive Legislation for Minimum Conditions of Work and Social Security for Unorganised Workers, July 2007 (For brief overview, see this press release)
3. Conditions of Work and Promotion of Livelihood in the Unorganised Sector, August 2007
4. Financing of Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector & Creation of a National Fund for the Unorganised Sector (NAFUS), November 2007 (hat tip: Manu Kanchan)
5. Report on Definitional and Statistical Issues relating to Informal Economy, November 2008
6. A Special Programme for Marginal and Small Farmers, December 2008
7. Growth Pole programme for Unorganised Sector Enterprise Development, April 2009 (hat tip: Rahul Nayyar)
8. Skill Formation and Employment Assurance in the Unorganised Sector, April 2009
9. A Report on Technology Upgradation for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector, April 2009
10. The Challenge of Employment in India: An Informal Economy Perspective, Volume I – Main Report and Volume II – Annexures, April 2009
11.  The Global Economic Crisis and the Informal Economy in India, undated. (hat tip: Dr. Nandini Nayak)

Working Papers:
1. Measure of Labour Force Participation and Utilization, January 2008 (hat tip: Manu Kanchan)
2. Contribution of the Unorganised Sector to GDP Report of the Sub Committee of a NCEUS Task Force, March 2008
3. Definitional and Statistical Issues Relating to Workers in Informal Employment, January 2009

Were there any other reports or working paper that I have missed? I vaguely recall a publication on the draft national street vendor policy, but I am not sure if it was by NCEUS. Any help will be appreciated :)

Update (17 Oct 2012): Rahul Nayyar discovered many of the NCEUS reports online. They are on the DCMSME website. [link]

Strikes and lockouts in India

The statistical yearbook (India 2012) is one stop place for a quick overview of the basic statistics in the country. You can find data on a wide variety of aspects of the Indian economy and society. Here’s a list of number of by strikes and lockouts in India since 1976:

To open spreadsheet in new window, click here

While industrial disputes appear to be generally falling post 1977, rising occasionally in 1983, 1986, 1996 and 1997, the sharpest decline was recorded during 1998-2002 when industrial disputes were cut into half. This coincides with the time when the judiciary was coming down heavy on political parties and labour unions for organizing ‘bandhs’ and ‘hartals’ (which from what I understand are different from strikes and lockouts). For more on the legal judgments, see: Bharat Kumar v State of Kerala (AIR 1997 Ker 291), Communist Party of India v Bharat Kumar (AIR 1998 SC 184) and T.K. Rangarajan v. Government of Tamil Nadu (AIR 2003 SC 3032).

Also – would you know where I can find information of the number of industrial disputes before 1977?